As an amateur, Melson won the 48th World Military Boxing Championship gold medal in the 69 kg. weight class, and was a four-time United States Army champion, a three-time NCBA All-American boxer, a four-time West Point Brigade Open Boxing Champion, and received the Colonel Marcus Award. He also won gold medals at the All Army Boxing Championships twice and at the Armed Forces Boxing Championships twice. He made it to the quarterfinals in the welterweight 2005 World Amateur Boxing Championships, and won a bronze medal at the 2005 US Amateur Boxing Championships.
As a professional, through April 2014, Melson was 14–1–1, with 4 of his wins coming by knockout. He is 5 feet 10 inches (1.78 m) tall, and weighs 154 lb (70 kg). Melson donates all of the money that he earns in his boxing matches to stem cell research and his efforts have been profiled on Emmy Award winning HBO series Real Sports, ESPN.com, Sports Illustrated and Yahoo.
In 2013, he was inducted into the National Jewish Sports Hall of Fame.
Melson started boxing in National Collegiate Boxing Association (NCBA) competition while he was a cadet at West Point. He was picked for the US Army World Class Athlete Program, and sent to Fort Carson, Colorado.
Melson was a four-time United States Army champion. He was also a three-time NCBA All-American boxer, a four-time West Point Brigade Open Boxing Champion, and received the Colonel Marcus Award, which is given to the best West Point boxer at graduation. He was trained by former lightweight world champion Joey Gamache.
In 2004, he won the 48th World Military Boxing Championship gold medal in the 69 kg. weight class by defeating Elshod Rasulov of Uzbekistan at Fort Huachuca, Arizona (as Ait Hammi Miloud of Morocco shared the bronze medal with Vyacheslav Kusov of Ukraine). That year he also won gold medals at the All Army Boxing Championships and the Armed Forces Boxing Championships.
Melson made it to the quarterfinals in the welterweight 2005 World Amateur Boxing Championships, losing to future pro star Erislandy Lara of Cuba, the eventual gold medal winner. That year he also won gold medals at the All Army Boxing Championships and the Armed Forces Boxing Championships, and a bronze medal at the 2005 US Amateur Boxing Championships.
He was an alternate on the 2008 U.S. Olympic Boxing Team, but withdrew with an injury.
Melson became a professional in 2010 to raise research funds to honor a woman who had been his girlfriend. She had been in a wheelchair for 17 years, since the age of 10, following a diving accident. They had met during his senior year at West Point, when she was already using a wheelchair due to a diving accident.
Melson worked tirelessly to educate himself on spinal cord injuries and stem cell research. He traveled abroad with girlfriend Christan Zaccagnino so she could undergo experimental procedures that are not currently offered in the United States. While there, they were exposed to the vast expansion of work being done in this field that does not involve the use of embryonic stem cells.
Melson donates all of the money he earns in his boxing matches to stem cell research. He gives it to Justadollarplease.org, a non-profit organization that raises money for the first U.S. spinal cord injury trial in using umbilical cord stem cells. Along with Justadollarplease.org, Melson created Team Fight to Walk, to increase awareness in boxing of the importance of stem cell research for spinal cord injuries. Team Fight to Walk is composed of Melson, former Rutgers University football player Eric LeGrand, former two-time IBF cruiserweight champion Steve Cunningham, US Olympians Shawn Estrada and Demetrius Andrade and contender Deandre Latimore amongst other boxers.
Through April 2014, Melson was 14–1–1, with 4 of his wins by way of knockout and the sole defeat coming via controversial decision in what was considered one of the best local fights on the New York scene in recent memory.Welterweight Dmitry Salita said of him following a May 2011 bout: “I have seen tremendous improvement in Boyd in the last two fights. He is a very talented fighter and sets an example inside and outside the ring.”
Since 2012, Melson has been training with head coach Simon Bakinde He also serves as an Army Reserves Captain of the 1179th Transportation Brigade at Fort Hamilton, in Brooklyn.